The Glasgow-Maastricht Foot Model (GM Foot)


External model: The model is under development and not yet included in the managed model repository. You can find this model in a public repository on GitHub.

AnyBody Technology developed in corporation with Glasgow Caledonian University and University of Maastricht inside the AFootprint EU project a detailed multisegmental foot model, which is fully dynamic and contains 26 segments representing all the foot bones, muscles, ligaments, and joints connecting them.

The model can be used with the anatomy and recorded motion from different subjects. It has been through a validation process comparing it with other experimental and computational studies.


Complex model: The GM Foot model is very complex and not recommended for beginners in musculoskeletal modeling and AnyBody.


The model can added to the TLEM 2.0 leg model and requires AMMR 2.0.1 or later.

To use the GM foot model the file GM_Foot_libdef.any must be included before the first Main statement.

// Include before the first Main
#include "path/to/GM_Foot/GM_Foot_libdef.any"

Main = {

   // Add body model configuration. E.g.
   #define BM_ARM_RIGHT OFF
   #define BM_ARM_LEFT OFF

   // Include the GM foot model. It handles inlcuding the human model as well.
   #include "<GM_FOOT_PATH>/GM_foot_model.any"

Model structure

The foot model includes 26 rigid segments representing all the bones of the human foot (except the sesamoid bones), namely:

Talus, Calcaneus, Cuboid, Navicular, Medial cuneiform, Intermediate cuneiform, Lateral cuneiform, First metatarsal, Second metatarsal, Third metatarsal, Fourth metatarsal, Fifth metatarsal, First proximal phalange, First distal phalange, Second proximal phalange, Second medial phalange, Second distal phalange, Third proximal phalange, Third medial phalange, Third distal phalange, Fourth proximal phalange, Fourth medial phalange, Fourth distal phalange, Fifth proximal phalange, Fifth medial phalange, Fifth distal phalange.

It includes the following joints and kinematic constraints:

Talocrural and Subtalar joint [20], Talonavicular joint, Calcaneocuboid joint, Medialcuneonavicular joint, Intermediate and lateral cuneonavicular joints, First tarsometatarsal joint, Second, third and fourth tarsometatarsal joints, Fifth tarsometatarsal joint, Metatarsophalangeal joints, Interphalangeal joints, Toe flexion rhythm, Intertarsal contact, Metatarsal head contact, Metatarsal transverse arch, Tarsal transverse arch, Longitudinal medial arch, Longitudinal lateral arch.

The GM-Foot model includes following additional ligaments:

Collateral (tibiotalar anterior, tibiotalar posterior, tibiocalcaneal and tibionavicular, and the lateral group constituted of the talofibular anterior, talofibular posterior and talocalcaneal), Deep metatarsal transverse, Plantar fascia, Long plantar, Calcaneo cuboid plantar, Calcaneo navicular plantar, Tarsal ligaments ( Talonavicular dorsal, Bifurcate, Calcaneocuboid dorsal, Cuneonavicular dorsal 1, 2 and 3, Cuneonavicular plantar 1, 2 and 3, Intercuneiform dorsal 1 and 2, Cuneocuboid dorsal, Intercuneiform plantar 1 and 2, Cuneocuboid plantar, Cuboideonavicular dorsal, Cuboideonavicular plantar, Tarsometatarsal dorsal 1 to 8, Tarsometatarsal plantar 1 to 7, Intermetatarsal dorsal 1, 2 and 3, Intermetatarsal plantar 1, 2 and 3) and Phalangeal ligaments

The muscles of the foot can be divided into two groups: the intrinsic muscles and the extrinsic muscles. All the extrinsic muscles come from the TLEM leg model of the AMMR. The intrinsic foot musculature is constituted of the following muscles:

abductor hallucis (ABDH), flexor hallucis brevis medialis (FHBM) and lateralis (FHBL), adductor hallucis transverse (ADHT) and oblique (ADHO), abductor digiti minimi (ABDM), flexor digiti minimi brevis (FDMB), dorsal interosseous (DI), plantar interosseous (PI), flexor digitorum brevis (FDB), lumbricals (LB), quadratus plantar medialis (QPM) and lateralis (QPL), extensor hallucis brevis (EHB), extensor digitorum brevis (EDB)

More information can be found online:

  • The new Glasgow-Maastricht AnyBody foot model (Sylvain Carbes, 20. September, 2012)

    Presentation (2Mb), Playback (36Mb)

    This webcast presents a detailed AnyBody musculoskeletal foot model which includes all bones and joints of a real foot. Developed in collaboration with Glasgow Caledonian University and University Hospital Maastricht and referred to as the “Glasgow-Maastricht foot model” this model can be driven by motion capture data and uses combined force plate/pressure plate for accurate loading of the different joints. Built-in scaling allows the user to reproduce principal foot deformities such as flat foot and hallux valgus. The high detail level of the model and a built-in scaling protocol allows the user to investigate a wide range of parameters like joints motion and load, muscles activation, both in healthy and pathologic feet.

References used as input:

  • Arampatzis, S. et al., Strain and elongation of the human gastrocnemius tendon and aponeurosis during maximal plantarflexion effort. J Biomech, 38(4):833–841, Apr 2005.

  • Arndt, P. et al., Intrinsic foot kinematics measured in vivo during the stance phase of slow running. J Biomech, 40(12):2672–2678, 2007.

  • Bandholm, T et al., Foot medial longitudinal-arch deformation during quiet standing and gait in subjects with medial tibial stress syndrome. J Foot Ankle Surg, 47(2):89–95, 2008.

  • Bloome, DM et al., Variations on the insertion of the posterior tibialis tendon: a cadaveric study. Foot Ankle Int, 24(10):780–783, Oct 2003.

  • Cailliet, R. The Illustrated Guide to Functional Anatomy of the Musculoskel. Sys.. D J R Evans, 2004.

  • Cheung, JT et al., Three-dimensional finite element analysis of the foot during standing–a material sensitivity study. J Biomech, 38(5):1045–1054, May 2005.

  • Fernandes, R. et al., Tendons in the plantar aspect of the foot: Mr imaging and anatomic correlation in cadavers. Skeletal Radiol, 36(2):115–122, Feb 2007.

  • Funk, JR et al., Linear and quasi-linear viscoelastic characterization of ankle ligaments. J Biomech Eng, 122(1):15–22, Feb 2000.

  • Kanatli, U. et al., Evaluation of the transverse metatarsal arch of the foot with gait analysis. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg, 123(4):148–150, May 2003.

  • Kitaoka, HB, et al., Mat properties of the plantar aponeurosis. Foot Ankle Int, 15(10):557–560, 1994.

  • Kura, H, et al., Quant. analysis of the intrinsic muscles of the foot. Anat Rec, 249(1):143–151,1997.

  • Lundberg and O.K. Svensson. The axes of rotation of the talocalcaneal and talonavicular joints. The Foot, 3(2):65 – 70, 1993.

  • Lundgren, P, et al., Invasive in vivo measurement of rear-, mid- and forefoot motion during walking. Gait Posture, 28(1):93–100, Jul 2008.

  • MacWilliams, BA, et al., Foot kinematics and kinetics during adolescent gait. Gait Posture, 17(3):214–224, Jun 2003.

  • Mengiardi, B, et al., Spring ligament complex: Mr imaging-anatomic correlation and findings in asymptomatic subjects. Radiology, 237(1):242–249, Oct 2005.

  • Moraes do Carmo, CC, et al., Anatomical features of plantar aponeurosis: cadaveric study using ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. Skeletal Radiol, 37(10):929–935, Oct 2008.

  • Netter, FH. Atlas der Anatomie des Menschen 3nd. Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart, 2003.

  • Pastore, D, et al., Complex distal insertions of the tibialis posterior tendon: detailed anatomic and mr imaging investigation in cadavers. Skeletal Radiol, 37(9):849–855, Sep 2008.

  • Patil, V. et al. Morphometric dimensions of the calcaneonavicular (spring) ligament. Foot Ankle Int, 28(8):927–932, Aug 2007.

  • Patil, V. et al., Anatomical variations in the insertion of the peroneus (fibularis) longus tendon. Foot Ankle Int, 28(11):1179–1182, Nov 2007.

  • Picard, M et al., orthopedic physical assessment 3rd edition (1997) wb saunders company,philadelphia 805 pp. 49.95. Journal of Hand Therapy, 11(4):286 –, 1998.

  • Siegler, S, et al., Mechanics of the ankle and subtalar joints revealed through a 3d quasi-static stress mri technique. J Biomech, 38(3):567–578, Mar 2005.

  • Sooriakumaran, P and Sivananthan, S. Why does man have a quadratus plantae? a review of its comparative anatomy. Croat Med J, 46(1):30–35, Feb 2005.

  • Stagni, R., et al., Ligament fibre recruitment at the human ankle joint complex in passive flexion. J Biomech, 37(12):1823–1829, Dec 2004.

  • Taniguchi, A. et al., Anat. of the spring ligament. J Bone Joint Surg Am, 85-A(11):2174–2178, 2003.

  • Ward, KA and R. W. Soames. Morphology of the plantar calcaneocuboid ligaments. Foot Ankle Int, 18(10):649–653, Oct 1997.

  • Winson, IC., et al., Metatarsal motion. The Foot, 5(2):91 – 94, 1995.

  • Winson, IC., et al., Passive regulation of impact forces in heel-toe running. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon), 13(7):521–531, Oct 1998.