The “Leg” Model

The “Leg” model was the first leg model to enter the AnyBody model repository. It includes the pelvis, thigh, shank and a one segment foot. The hip joint is modeled as a spherical joint, while the knee and ankle are modeled as hinges. The “Leg” model is equipped with only 35 muscles elements, which makes it a far simpler model than the LegTLEM.

Thanks to Mark Thompson, Lund University Hospital, for his help in developing the lower extremity model. A couple of muscles with broad insertions (like the m. gluteus maximus) are divided into multiple individual muscle units to represent the real geometry and the mechanical actions of the muscle.

The parameters of these muscles are mainly based on the data published by Delp and Maganaris


    1. Delp, Parameters for the lower limb,

  • Maganaris, C. N. In vivo measurement-based estimations of the moment arm in the human tibialis anterior muscle-tendon unit. Journal of Biomechanics, Vol. 33, pp. 375-379, 2000

  • Dostal, W. F. and J. G. Andrews. A three-dimensional biomechanical model of hip musculature. Journal of Biomechanics, Vol. 14, pp. 803-812, 1981.

  • Herzog, W. and L. J. Read. Lines of action and moment arms of the major force-carrying structures crossing the human knee joint. Journal of Anatomy. Vol. 182:, pp. 213-230, 1993.

  • Hintermann, B., B. M. Nigg, and C. Sommer. Foot movement and tendon excursion: an in vitro study. Foot & Ankle International, Vol. 15, pp. 386-395, 1994