Twente Lower Extremity Model v.1.2

The AnyBody implementation of a the Twente lower extremity model (TLEM) consists of 159 muscles, and 6 joint degrees.

The model has been validated against ‘state of the art’ literature with respect to its biomechanical performance and first applications in gait and cycling deliver very convincing results.

The model is based on published morphological consistent anatomical dataset on muscle and joint parameters by Martijn Klein-Horsman from the University of Twente, The Netherlands. The implementation of the model was started by Karin Gorter, a Master Student, also from the University of Twente, during a three-month stay at Aalborg University and has been finished by the AnyBody Technology.

The current version has been updated several times and is still being maintained in collaboration with The AnyBody Research Group at Aalborg University (DK) ( and University of Twente (NL) under the TLEMsafe project (

Example Configuration

Short example of how to configure the model with the TLEM model, Hill type muscle model and only one leg:


See also

See Leg configuration parameters for a full list of configuration parmaeters or configuration section for more information on BM parameters.


More details can be found online:

  1. Dendorfer and Toerholm 2008: Report containing moment arm validation for ESA: report

  2. Horsman 2007: Klein Horsman, M. D., Koopman, H. F. J. M., van der Helm, F. C. T., Prosé, L. P., and Veeger, H. E. J., 2007, “Morphological Muscle and Joint Parameters for Musculoskeletal Modelling of the Lower Extremity,” Clin. Biomech. , 22(2), pp. 239–247. link