Thoracic spine model#

Unreleased model:

The model is under development and not yet included in the managed model repository. The model is used in various research projects and access to the model can be given on request. Please contact us if you are interested in this work.


The thoracic spine model consists of the thoracic vertebral column and the ribcage, including individual ribs and a two part sternum. The many segments interconnected by joints replicates the physiological connection and load transfer mechanisms.

Kinematics and spine rhythms#

The thoracic vertebral column contains 12 vertebrae with 3 DoF spherical joints in between each 2 vertebrae, connecting to the cervical spine through a spherical joint at T1C7 levels, and a spherical joint to the lumbar spine at T12L1 levels. Costovertebral and sternocostal joint are also represented through kinematic joints. All vertebra are linked with rhythm drivers to allow easy use.

Muscles configurations#

The majority of the muscle fascicles are defined for the thoracic column, ribcage region as well as a diaphragm muscles to simulatate breathing and abdominal volume pressure.


Example Configuration#

The detailed thoracic model can be controlled using the BM_* statements like the rest of the body models.

  #define BM_TRUNK_THORACIC_MODEL _THORACIC_MODEL_FLEXIBLE_   //Enables the detailed thoracic model

  #define BM_TRUNK_CAVITY_MODEL _CAVITY_MODEL_VOLUME_  //Enables the new abdominal volume model


Planned for AMMR 4.0: The model is scheduled to be released together with AMMR 4.0, but is available on GitHub at Otherwise, for early access please contact us.


  • Ignasiak, D., Dendorfer, S., Fergusson, S.J. (2016), “Thoracolumbar spine model with articulated ribcage for the prediction of dynamic spinal loading”, Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 49 (6), pp. 959-966.

  • Shayestehpour, H., Toerholm, S., Lund, M.E., Rasmussen, J. (To be submitted), “A generic detailed multibody thoracic spine and ribcage model.” Journal of Multibody system dynamics.